Gracchi e Kennedy - Vite parallele (Italian Edition)
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Roman legionaries served as a source of expertise as well; as such, much of the infrastructure which connected the empire was built by legionaries.
Roads and bridges were built by legionaries as well as more defensive structures such as fortresses and walls. Hadrian's wall, a monumental example of Roman engineering , was built by the three legions stationed in the area. Legionaries were not just limited to building large-scale engineering projects. Surveyors, artisans, a. Canvassing Canvassing is the systematic initiation of direct contact with individuals used during political campaigns.
Canvassing operations are performed for many reasons: political campaigning, grassroots fundraising , community awareness, membership drives, more. Campaigners will knock on doors to engage in personalized contact with an individual, it is used by political parties and issue groups to identify supporters, persuade the undecided, add voters to the voters list through voter registration, it is central to get out the vote operations.
It is the core element of what political campaigns call field. Organized political canvassing became a central tool of contested election campaigns in Britain, has remained a core practice performed by thousands of volunteers each election there, in many of the countries descended from its political system, it is less common in campaigns of Continental East Asian democracies. Canvassing can refer to a neighborhood canvass performed by law enforcement in the course of an investigation. A neighborhood canvass is a systematic approach to interviewing residents and others who are in the immediate vicinity of a crime and may have useful information.
A modern election canvass is conducted either by paid canvassers; the canvassers are given lists known in the UK as reading pads. These are a list of households to be contacted, generated from a voter database; some campaigns today have replaced paper sheets with smartphone apps. The canvasser will attempt to reach each of the households on their list, deliver a script containing questions and persuasive messaging provided by the campaign.
All election canvassing includes asking how a person plans to vote. Supporters may be asked themselves to volunteer, or to take a lawn sign; those who are wavering or undecided may be given a message of persuasion. If foot canvassing, the canvasser may distribute flyers. Upon completing the canvass, the results will be entered into the voter database; this will update the campaign's list of voters, removing those who have moved or are deceased and adding new residents who may have been found.
The data on the questions will be used for further contact, a supporter may be added to a list for get out the vote or fundraising, while a hostile voter might be dropped from future contact. The origin of the term is an older spelling of "canvas", to sift by shaking in a sheet of canvas, hence to discuss thoroughly.
An organized canvass can be seen as early as the elections of the Roman Republic. In those campaigns candidates would shake the hands of all eligible voters in the Forum. Whispering into the ear of some candidates would be a nomenclator, a slave, trained to memorize the names of all the voters, so that the candidate could greet them all by name.
Modern canvassing traces back to the rise of contested elections in England. For the first centuries of the English Parliament elections were contested. Losing an election was considered a dishonor to oneself, to friends and family. Campaigning thus involved quiet sounding out of the small pool of voters. Only once this process had convinced a candidate that he had enough votes to win would he declare his interest in the seat. Beginning in the Elizabethan era, expanding during the conflicts under the Stuarts , elections began to be contested. Canvassing was a controversial strategy.
In both and canvassing for votes was banned, it was seen as a violation to free elections, as votes would be won by persuasion rather than a voter making up his own mind. Despite this, by the late 17th century, canvassing was standard practice in English elections. Rival campaigns would attempt a full canvass of all voters, which in the largest districts would only be a few thousand people. There were many reasons why candidates invested much money in canvassing ; as in the previous tradition of sounding out supporters before announcing, many candidates would use the canvass to determine their level of support, would drop out before election day if it proved insufficient.
Part of the concern would be financial. Campaigning was expensive in an era where voters expected to be plied with drink. In this period the candidates had to cover the costs of the election itself.
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If candidates did not find enough votes during their canvass they would drop out before wasting more money on a losing campaign. Building the list of voters was important, as only some districts kept full poll books. Legal wrangling over who met the property requirements to vote was important in many campaigns, canvassing was used to add supporters to the rolls, while investigating the claims of opponents; the growing list of supporters would be essential to an election day operation.
In early elections all voters had to travel to a central town some distance from their home, polling could last several days. During this time voters would be away from their fields; as an example of the challenges, one losing candidate had identified supporters in Kent for the Short Parliament election of , but only voted, most going home after finding out the polling would take three days. A candidate would make sure to knock on as many doors as possible to win over the voters.
Speaking to as many voters as possible was seen as an essential tool to win the "wavering multitudes. By the 18th century canvassing was standard practice, but this was an era of gross electoral corruption, canvassing was used to bribe and threaten voters, as famously depicted in William Hogarth's Humours of an Election series of paintings. Most directly this would take the form of direct bribes to voters; this was only the prac. Hectare The hectare is an SI accepted metric system unit of area equal to a square with metre sides, or 10, m2, is used in the measurement of land.
There are hectares in one square kilometre. An acre is about 0. The International Committee for Weights and Measures makes no mention of the are in the current definition of the SI, but classifies the hectare as a "Non-SI unit accepted for use with the International System of Units". The names centiare, deciare and hectare are derived by adding the standard metric prefixes to the original base unit of area, the are; the centiare is one square metre. The deciare is ten square metres; the are is a unit of area, used for measuring land area.
It was defined by older forms of the metric system, but is now outside the modern International System of Units, it is still used in colloquial speech to measure real estate, in particular in Indonesia , in various European countries. In Russian and other languages of the former Soviet Union , the are is called sotka. It is used to describe the size of suburban dacha or allotment garden plots or small city parks where the hectare would be too large; the decare is derived from deca and are, is equal to 10 ares or square metres.
It is used in Norway and in the former Ottoman areas of the Middle East and the Balkans as a measure of land area. In practice the hectare is derived from the SI, being equivalent to a square hectometre , it is used throughout the world for the measurement of large areas of land, it is the legal unit of measure in domains concerned with land ownership and management, including law, agriculture and town planning throughout the European Union. Some countries that underwent a general conversion from traditional measurements to metric measurements required a resurvey when units of measure in legal descriptions relating to land were converted to metric units.
Others, such as South Africa , published conversion factors which were to be used "when preparing consolidation diagrams by compilation". John Leech caricaturist John Leech was a British caricaturist and illustrator.
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He is best known for his work for Punch, a humorous magazine for a broad middle-class audience, combining verbal and graphic political satire with light social comedy. Leech catered to contemporary prejudices, such as anti-Americanism and antisemitism and supported acceptable social reforms. Leech's critical yet humorous cartoons on the Crimean War help shape public attitudes toward heroism and Britons ' role in the world.
Leech enjoys fame as the first illustrator of Charles Dickens' novel A Christmas Carol , he was furthermore a pioneer in comics, creating the recurring character Mr.
Briggs and some sequential illustrated gags. John Leech was born in London , his father, a native of Ireland , was the landlord of the London Coffee House on Ludgate Hill , "a man", on the testimony of those who knew him, "of fine culture, a profound Shakespearian , a thorough gentleman. It was from his father that Leech inherited his skill with the pencil, which he began to use at a early age. When he was only three, he was discovered by John Flaxman , visiting, seated on his mother's knee, drawing with much gravity. The sculptor admired.
A mail-coach, done when he was six years old, is full of surprising vigour and variety in its galloping horses. Leech was educated at Charterhouse School , where William Makepeace Thackeray , his lifelong friend, was a fellow pupil, at sixteen he began to study for the medical profession at St Bartholomew's Hospital , where he won praise for the accuracy and beauty of his anatomical drawings, he was placed under a Mr Whittle, an eccentric practitioner, the original of "Rawkins" in Albert Smith's Adventures of Mr Ledbury , afterwards under Dr John Cockle.
His nickname being "Blicky" stuck with him during his life, along with being famous, he was eighteen when his first designs were published, a quarto of four pages, entitled Etchings and Sketchings by A.
Pen, Esq. He drew some political lithographs , did rough sketches for Bell's Life , produced a popular parody on Mulready's postal envelope, and, on the death of Dickens illustrator Robert Seymour in , unsuccessfully submitted his renderings to illustrate the Pickwick Papers. In Leech began his contributions to the magazines with a series of etchings in Bentley's Miscellany , where George Cruikshank had published his plates to Jack Sheppard and Oliver Twist , was illustrating Guy Fawkes in feebler fashion. In company with the elder master Leech designed for the Ingoldsby Legends and Stanley Thorn, until produced many independent series of etchings; these were not his best work.
In Leech illustrated St Giles and St James in Douglas William Jerrold's new Shilling Magazine, with plates more vigorous and accomplished than those in Bentley, but it is in subjects of a somewhat date, in those etched and meant to be printed with colour, that we see the artist's best powers with the needle and acid.
Among such of his designs are four charming plates to Charles Dickens's A Christmas Carol, the broadly humorous etchings in the Comic History of England , the still finer illustrations to the Comic History of Rome —which last in its minor woodcuts, shows some exquisitely graceful touches, as witness the fair faces that rise from the surging water in Cloelia and her Companions Escaping from the Etruscan Camp. Among his other etchings are those in Young Master Troublesome or Master Jacky's Holidays, the frontispiece to Hints on Life, or How to Rise in Society —a series of minute subjects linked gracefully together by coils of smoke, illustrating the various ranks and conditions of men, one of them—the doctor by his patient's bedside—almost equalling in vivacity and precision the best of Cruikshank's similar scenes.
In the s come the numerous etchings of sporting scenes, together with woodcuts, to the Handley Cross novels by Robert Smith Surtees. Turning to Leech's lithographic work, we have, in , the Portraits of the Children of the Mobility, an important series dealing with the humorous and pathetic aspects of London street " Arabs ", which were afterwards so and so to employ the artist's pencil. Amid all the squalor which they depict, they are full of individual beauties in the delicate or touching expression of a face, in the graceful turn of a limb; the book is scarce in its original form, but in two reproductions of the outline sketches for the designs were published—a lithographic issue of the whole series, a finer photographic transcript of six of the subjects, more valuable than the finished illustrations of , in which the added light and shade is spotty and ineffective, arid the lining itself has not the freedom which we find in some of Leech's other lithographs, notably in the Fly Leaves, published at the Punch office, in the inimitable subject of the nuptial couch of the Caudles, which appeared, in woodcut form, as a political cartoon, with Mrs Caudle, personated by Brougham, disturbing by untimely loquacity the slumbers of the lord chancellor, whose haggard cheek rests on the woolsack for pillow.
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Sempronia gens The gens Sempronia was a Roman family of great antiquity. It included both plebeian branches; the first of the Sempronii to obtain the consulship was Aulus Sempronius Atratinus , in BC, the twelfth year of the Republic. The patrician Sempronii obtained the highest offices of the state in the early centuries of the Republic, but they were eclipsed by the plebeian families of the gens at the end of the fourth century BC; the glory of the Sempronia gens is confined to the Republican period.
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Few persons of this name, none of them of any importance, are mentioned under the Empire; the praenomina favored by the patrician Sempronii were Aulus and Gaius. The plebeian families of the gens used the praenomina Gaius, Publius and Marcus; the Sempronii Tuditani used Marcus and Publius, while their contemporaries, the Sempronii Gracchi , used Tiberius and Publius. Some families, including the Sempronii Rutili and Sempronii Muscae, used the praenomen Titus instead of Tiberius; the Sempronii were divided into many families, of which those bearing the surname Atratinus were undoubtedly patrician, while all of the others appear to have been plebeian.
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Of these, only Atratinus and Pitio occur on coins. Atratinus is derived from atratus, meaning "clad in black"; the Atratini were patricians, were distinguished in the early history of the Republic. Sophus, "a wise man", was the name of a plebeian family of the Sempronii, which flourished during the third and fourth centuries BC.
Blaesus, "one who stammers", was the name of a plebeian family which first rose to prominence during the First Punic War. Tuditanus, the name of a family appearing in the second half of the 3rd century BC, was supposed by the philologist Ateius, to have been given to one of the Sempronii because he had a head like a tudes, or mallet.