Marketing 3.0: From Products to Customers to the Human Spirit
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These factors result in individuals feeling pressure to become local citizens as well as retaining their local citizenship. Evidently, these two paradoxes are not the only paradoxes that are important for the rise of Marketing 3. Next to globalization, the rise of a creative society, enabled by improved technology has been identified as a major driver for the emergence of the new marketing era Kotler et al.
The number of creative people within society seems to be comparatively small, but their role is crucial, since they create and use new concepts, as well as new technologies Kotler et al. Pink states that this type of society represents the highest level of social development in human civilization. They make the most collaborative and expressive use of social media and have a high influence on the society with their way of life and attitudes, and they tend to shape opinions of others Chatterjee, ; Sweeney, They are the hubs that connect consumers Kotler et al. Florida investigated that there has been a recent increase in the creativity index in both the US and Europe.
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This index measures the degree of creative development of a nation based on enhancement of technology, talent, and tolerance Florida, Creativity expresses itself in terms of morality, humanity, as well as spirituality Zohar, For marketers, it is important to realize that creative society favor cultural and collaborative brands and that they tend to criticize brands with a negative triple bottom line Cronin et al.
Moreover, the creative society seeks beyond what money can buy, namely meaning, happiness, and spiritual realization Kotler et al. Over the past few decades, the way companies see the market has evolved through various stages Kotler et al. During the phase of Marketing 1. Companies started to see consumers as human beings whose mind, as well as emotional heart had to be targeted through marketing Kotler et al. To tackle this issue, Kotler et al. Therefore, it can be stated that in Marketing 3. Further research on this topic suggests that the society often does not know which factors have a significant impact on their spiritual fulfillment Iles, ; Liu et al.
The new emerged concept of Marketing 3. To solve these Kotler et al. First, to handle the increasing amount of consumer participation through the emergence of new wave technology, companies are advised to deal with this through the concept of collaborative Marketing Kotler et al. Collaborative marketing implies that companies align their interests, resources, and marketing activities with other like-minded stakeholders, like consumers and other companies, in order to accomplish more than it might have been able to do on its own Williams, ; Chen, K.
The concept of collaborative marketing therefore stimulates the desire of consumers to interact with the brand and other consumers in order to be more involved into marketing activities by forming creative content themselves Kotler et al. Secondly, Kotler et al. Cultural marketing, therefore, seeks to get behind the movements and trends within a prevailing culture Klepic, So cultural marketing aims at solving the problems that arose through the globalization which it does by giving context to marketing activities Kotler et al.
Lastly, spiritual marketing was introduced as a new emerging trend in Marketing 3. The concept of spiritual marketing has gained relevance because it is said to be tackling the age of creativity and forms an opportunity for this trend Kotler et al. In order to be able to gain the most benefits of the current market situation under 3. The purpose of the brand triangle is, that, according to Kotler et al. It works as a reminder for businesses to be authentic since consumers tend to quickly make up their mind whether a brand is authentic or not Kotler et al.
Brand integrity, on the other hand, refers to the requirement of actually fulfilling what is claimed through the positioning and differentiation of the brand. Therefore, brand integrity is what comes new in the era of Marketing 3. The model by Kotler et al. This point is shared by Drucker , who further states that successful businesses with the performance of their mission and not with planning financial returns, and that if done right, financial returns will eventually come as a result.
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Furthermore, it is stated that a company should characterize its mission as fundamentally as possible so that it will determine the sustainability of the company Kotler et al. It also needs to explain what the company aspires to become and achieve Malhotra et al. Literature reveals that a consonant brand-positioning differentiation is the main success factor in the era of consumer empowerment through social media, since there is no chance that inauthentic companies survive in the time of consumer empowerment and electronic word of mouth Conelly et al.
It also implies that companies are advised to reduce the amount of vertical communication and engage into a more horizontal form of communication with consumers Malhotra et al. In order to theoretically test the effect of the most recent Marketing 3. Furthermore, it will be evaluated in how far the perception of the different 7Ps has changed between Marketing 2.
After the hypotheses have been tested, will be discussed and can be seen in table 2 and table 3. Since traditional marketing techniques are no longer able to completely grasp modern markets, the implementation of Marketing 3. Thus, the effect of the implementation of the Marketing 3.
Research states that companies are increasingly getting the customer involved in the creation and development of new products Kotler et al.
This new form of co-creation creates new product and experiences through collaboration by companies with their consumers, but also their suppliers and further stakeholders Kotler et al. This implies that companies, consumers, channel partners, and suppliers are jointly involved in creating product and experience through collaboration in a network of innovation Kotler et al.
Companies can learn from consumers since consumers often use a certain product differently as it was intended by the company, resulting in personalised experiences which create value for the company and the consumer, leading to a win-win situation for both parties Cronin et al. Next, individual consumers within the network get the ability to customise the platform according to their unique identities. Lastly, the company is advised to ask consumers for feedback and enhance the generic product platform by unifying the customisation efforts made by consumers Kotler et al.
While in Marketing 2. That is why in the era of Marketing 3. This is why more and more companies try to resolve consumer anxieties by implementing more environmental-friendly products Malhotra et al. Nevertheless, there are also more critical opinions on the implementation of environmental-friendly products or ingredients into the range of product offerings. Researchers like Meffert et al. Therefore, it can be concluded that the Marketing 3.
Additionally, consumers increasingly request sustainable products. Currently, there is a lack of literature available that examines the direct impact of Marketing 3. Nevertheless, current trends will be evaluated which should be taken into account in order to investigate the potential effect of Marketing 3. In regards to place, research reveals that consumers want information fast and whenever they want it Goetzinger et al. Resulting from this, a company that is, for instance, selling healthy food can benefit from an online store in a way that once a person searches for information related to this topic, he can directly purchase the product online.
Additionally, due to recent technology developments like the Internet of Things and the Web 3.
Therefore, it is expected that upcoming technological developments will result in a further shift towards online selling due to improving technology. During the era of Marketing 2. This is related to previous positive experiences of a customer with a company, either by the buyer himself or other consumers in his community Bell, ; Malhotra et al. With the emergence of Marketing 3. Ansar further investigated this, concluding that ecologically conscious consumers are significantly proven to be willing to pay premium prices for environmental-friendly, i.
Nevertheless, some research also states that high ethical standards in business can be achieved by maintaining high prices only if the associated costs are clearly identifiable Ndubisi et al. Furthermore, research indicates that in some industries, consumers are less likely to pay premium prices for environmental-friendly products since they do not view these to be adding value to the product experience Meffert et al. Nevertheless, the implementation of Marketing 3. As research identified, reduces waste through more sustainable processes will eventually lead to fewer costs, which might result in lower prices Cronin et al.
Furthermore, there is research that claims that governments should provide companies who engage into environmental business with subsidies, to make the engagement into sustainable business practices even more attractive for companies Liu et al. Concluding, it can be argued that Marketing 3. Regarding promotion, with the emergence of Marketing 3.
Therefore, since consumers are becoming increasingly empowered, companies are advised to shift the communication from a vertical into a horizontal form of communication in which consumers engage in the creation of promotional activities, since consumers trust towards professional promotional activities is continuously decreasing Kotler et al. Companies therefore increasingly invite consumers to create promotional content for the company Kimmel, Malhotra et al. Nevertheless, research also suggests that Marketing 3.
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Additionally, companies increasingly use promotional activities to not only sell products, but also to educate the listener about the sustainable services and products in order to encourage them to adopt sustainable behaviours and educate them on ways to decrease societal anxieties Iles, ; Luchs et al. This results from the fact that there is an information asymmetry between the society and business practitioners Iles, On the other hand, there are researchers who state that this type of educational advertisement is unnecessary, since the society already knows what sustainable behavior consists of Meffert et al.
One way to tackle the skeptical society is therefore to find creative influencers of the society and involve these in promoting sustainable activities and products in order to efficiently create positive word of mouth Kotler et al. Taking this into account, it is not surprising that many companies like Volvic, Alverde, Starbucks and McDonalds started promoting sustainability in their promotional activities Trefis, ; Meffert at el. Hence, promotional activities in Marketing 3.
Additionally, companies increasingly use promotional activities in order to educate consumers about the necessity of sustainable products. In order for Marketing 3. Therefore, companies are in the need for greater integration between marketing and their other activities, especially their supply chain in order to ensure that sustainable supply chains reduce environmental and social adverse effects Cronin et al.
Conelly et al. In order to improve these systems, Malhotra et al. Moreover, the processes within the company should be improved by reducing waste in order to serve the Marketing 3. Additionally, companies increasingly make use of environmental management systems EMS with specific emphasis on getting these systems certified Cronin et al.
Cronin et al. Also, it was indicated that firms with certified systems like ISO outperformed uncertified formal systems Cronin et al.
Therefore, the emergence of Marketing 3. In regard to Marketing 3. This ensures that employees will more likely share the sustainable vision of the company, Iles, ; Conelly et al. The effect on bad treatment towards employees can be seen by the example of Nike Nisen, Hence, Marketing 3.
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On the other hand, Meffert et al. Nevertheless, other research suggests that since consumers are increasingly requesting environmental-friendly products, a brand can build a competitive advantage by focusing on environmental and societal priorities Liu et al. Nevertheless, it is stated that creating a sustainable brand should only be considered if sustainability is valued by the main target group Meffert et al. Nowadays, with Marketing 3.
Furthermore, it is crucial that the true identity which is reflected by the DNA achieves authentic differentiation, since consumers view a brand and immediately judge whether it is fake or not Kotler et al. Therefore, modern Marketing 3. Society becomes increasingly skeptical about the credibility, validity, and usefulness of sustainable marketing Chen, ; Meffert et al.
Hence, when engaging in greenwashing, companies falsely claim to solve societal anxieties by promoting to increase societal welfare, without acting upon it in reality. Greenwashing can take many different forms.