Timing (Information Technology: Transmission, Processing & Storage)

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Regardless of CPU preference, each architecture and platform uses high-speed data buses to transfer data between the CPUs, memory, storage devices and add-in cards. In addition to being used on server motherboards, PCIe is becoming widely adopted in data center storage applications as solid state drives SSDs become favored over hard disk media.

The expanded use of the PCIe data bus in server and storage applications is driving the need for more, higher precision PCIe reference clocks throughout the entire rack, from the CPU on the server motherboard all the waydown to each SSD. It is also common for flash array storage systems to use FPGAs and customized controller ASICs to manage the traffic between the servers and SSDs, each of which needs its own high-performance reference clocks.

While hard disk storage is expected to be the dominant data center storage media for the next several years, flash array storage system deployment is growing rapidly. Industry analysts are anticipating a steep ramp in flash array storage adoption in the timeframe, primarily driven by web service data centers. Silicon Labs recently introduced two new families of low jitter clock generators specifically addressing clock tree requirements needed in x86, Power, ARM and flash array storage systems.

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With the capability of generating fractional and integer related clock frequencies, spread spectrum-modulated clocks, low power consumption and frequency control, the Si device integrates all clocks needed in a storage system design into a single IC, saving printed circuit board PCB area and system cost. For system designs and add-in cards that only require a PCIe clock source, the Sixx family of PCIe Gen 4 clock generators provides between 2 and 12 clock outputs of MHzwith fs rms typical phase jitter performance, spread spectrum modulation for EMI reduction and hardware output enable pins.

The design cycle for new data center equipment is typically two years.

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To accommodate new software and web services product launches on a faster schedule, data center architects have started developing specialized processor add-in cards that can provide additional CPU processing power, or alternative types of processing power that are optimized for certain applications such as web search, artificial intelligence or machine learning.

Add-in cards are designed to plug into a standard server motherboard over a PCIe connector, immediately providing expanded capabilities to an existing server. The design cycles for add-in cards can be as short as six months, giving operators and web companies added capabilities within a data center without re-architecting re-outfitting an entire data center with new servers.

The primary interconnect between the server motherboard and the processing device on the add-in card isPCIe, although new alternative protocols are starting to be adopted. Given these data rates, the reference clocks must be incredibly precise to ensure robust signal integrity and minimize bit error loss. Data centers are increasingly important in many aspects of our lives, enabling information storage on avast service as well as cloud services and emerging artificial intelligence systems.

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To continue supporting the rapid pace of new innovations and applications being run in the cloud, architects and hardware designers must continue to expand bandwidth within the servers, storage equipment and switching networks within data centers. To ensure the maximum potential of these technologies is reached, system designers must put greater importance on clock tree design and use ultra-low jitter reference clocks throughout the data center.

Beckmeyer joined Silicon Labs in , bringing 8 years oftiming experience and market knowledge. If you have any issues downloading, please contact sales support or product technical support. Data Center Interconnect Data centers are connected to each other and the underlying core and aggregation telecom network through high-speed optical fiber connections. Spine and Leaf Switches Spine and leaf switches create a network of connections between racks of servers and storage equipment, evenly distributing traffic throughout the data center.

Accelerator Cards The design cycle for new data center equipment is typically two years. D'Antona, Gabriele, Ferrero, Alessandro Comaniciu, Christina, Mandayam, Narayan B.

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